Coronavirus (COVID 19) Cases Overview
Coronaviruses are large family of viruses that majorly causes the illness such as common cold to most severe diseases such as Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) and Severe Acute respiratory Syndrome (SARS). However, the (Coronavirus Disease) COVID-19 is a new strain of coronavirus identified in 2019 and not been previously identified in humans.
Causes and Symptoms of COVID-19
The major cause for the coronavirus disease 2019 is not clear however, the disease transmitted from one person to another person through direct contact such as touching of infected persons and then touching hands to mouth, nose, and eyes, body fluids like cough droplets, and touching of articles previously touched by infected persons. The major symptoms of the coronavirus include cold, cough, fever, and shortness of breath and other symptoms include aches, runny nose, sore throat, tiredness, and others. Moreover, researchers found that digestive issues such as diarrhea could be the first sign of (Coronavirus Disease) COVID for many patients.
Coronavirus Disease – 2019: Epidemiology
The first known case of COVID-19 was identified from Hubei province in China in November 2019 and currently the diseases spreading across the globe. In January 2020, the first known death with COVID-19 was identified in China. As of 2nd June 2020, more than 6.4 Mn cases identified as positive across the globe, of which above 381,000 deaths occurred due to disease and approximately 3.0 Mn people recovered from COVID-19. At global level, United States has 29.2% of coronavirus cases followed by Brazil with 8.6%, Russia with 6.6%, Spain with 4.5%, UK with 4.3%, Italy with 3.6%, India with 3.2%, and Germany with 2.9% of coronavirus cases. According to recent statistics, the incidence rate of the disease decreased in European countries such as Spain, Italy, UK, Germany, and others however, it is gradually increasing in USA, Brazil, Russia, and India. The overall death rate is about 5.9% among all the positive cases and USA, UK, Italy, Brazil, and France are the top 5 countries with highest number of deaths. The deaths are raising at a faster rate in the United States by 2nd June there were around 108,059 deaths occurred due to COVID-19.
Table 1: Top 25 Countries with the highest cases of COVID-19 as of 3rd June 2020
|Country||Total Cases||Total Deaths||Total Recovered||Active Cases||Total Tests|
Coronavirus Disease – 2019: Disease Diagnosis
Most of the public and private organizations are focus on R&D activities for the diagnosis of COVID-19. For instance,
- On 5th March, Quest Diagnostics launched coronavirus (COVID-19) test service that helps the detection of nucleic acid in respiratory specimens of patients meeting CDC’s clinical criteria for COVID-19 testing
- On 10th March, Genematrix received CE-IVD certification for its new coronavirus test kit, Neoflex COVID.
- On 11th March, Biomerieux announced the forthcoming launch of 3 different tests for the detection of COVID-19. The tests include SARS-COV-2 R-GENE®test, a real-time PCR test, a fully-automated test based on the BIOFIRE FILMARRAY tests designed to run on FILMARRAY® 2.0 and FILMARRAY® TORCH platforms, and BIOFIRE® FILMARRAY® Respiratory Panel 2 which delivers the results in 45 minutes
- On 11th March, Hologic, Inc. received advanced development support for its molecular diagnostic test from U.S. Biomedical Advanced Research and Development Authority (BARDA) for the detection of COVID-19
- On 13th March, Hackensack Meridian innovation center launched a diagnostic tool to accelerate COVID-19 test results
- On 13th March, the USFDA approved the Roche’s Cobas 6800/8800 diagnostic systems for the detection of novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2)
- On 13th March, Bio-Rad launched SARS CoV-2 Standard to support laboratory assay validation of coronavirus (COVID-19) testing
- On 16th March, Thermo Fisher Scientific received the EUA to detect the Covid-19 virus by using Applied Biosystems TaqPath Assay technology and is designed to provide results within four hours.
- On 17th March, Roche Diagnostics India received the test licence for SARS CoV-2 diagnostic test.
- On 18th March, Abbott, Inc. received FDA Emergency Use Authorization (EUA) for the company’s molecular test for novel coronavirus (COVID-19). The tests are used on the company’s m2000 RealTime System
- Everlywell planned to launch at home test kits for COVID-19 diagnosis on March 23rd 2019
- On 19th March, BGI Genomics’ subsidiary BGI Americas launched Real-Time Fluorescent RT-PCR testto detect SARS-CoV-2 in USA
- On 22nd March, FDA approved EUA for Cepheid’s Xpert Xpress SARS-CoV-2, a rapid molecular diagnostic test for qualitative detection of SARS-CoV-2
- On 27th March, US FDA issued Emergency Use Authorisation (EUA) for the Abbott’s molecular point of care test that can diagnose the COVID-19 within five minutes and negative results in 13 minutes
- On 1st April, Thermo Fisher Scientific launched AcroMetrix Coronavirus 2019 RNA Control to monitor and validate Covid-19 molecular diagnostic tests.
- On 1st April, Biolidics Limited developed rapid test kit for COVID-19 from serum, plasma or blood samples with an accuracy of more than 95 percent in 10 minute
- On 1st April, Biomedics partnered with Becton Dickinson & Co. to launch its new blood test for COVID-19 that can detect the infection within 15 minutes.
- On 2nd April, Siemens Healthineers launched molecular Fast Track Diagnostics (FTD) SARS-CoV-2 Assay test kit used to diagnose of infection by the SARS-CoV-2
- On 3rd April, DetectED-X a University of Sydney launched the world’s only online image-based COVID-19 diagnosis improvement tool for healthcare workers.
- On 6th April, Ortho Clinical Diagnostics launched VITROS, SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19/coronavirus) antibody test into market
- On7th April, Bio-Rad Laboratories, Inc. launched blood-based immunoassay kit to identify antibodies to the coronavirus SARS-CoV-2, the virus associated with COVID-19
- On 23rd April 2020, US-based startup Biotech Developed E25Bio 15-Minute Test for COVID-19
- On 1st May 2019, Biolidics Limited launched point-of-care testing rapid test kit for COVID-19
Apart from above-mentioned companies, most of the companies submitted the Emergency Use Authorization request for the diagnosis of COVID-19.
Coronavirus Disease – 2019: Treatment
Currently there is no antiviral drugs are available to treat COVID-19. However, various anti-viral drugs and other medications are preferred to prevent the symptoms of COVID-19 such as cough, cold, and fever, among others. The current medications used for the COVID-19 treatment are
- In February 2019, National Medical Products Administration of China approved the Anti-viral drug Favilavir for the treatment of COVID-19
- According to World Health Organization, Remdesivir may have the best shot at treating COVID-19.
- Combination of anti-HIV drugs Lopinavir and Ritonavir are using for the treatment of COVID-19
- Physician and scientists announced that use of hydroxychloroquine along with an antiviral medicine may cure the COVID-19
Coronavirus Disease – 2019: Vaccines and Therapeutics – Overview
Most of the market players are involved in the development of vaccines and therapeutics for the treatment of COVID-19. For instance,
- I-Mab Biopharma developed TJM2, a neutralising antibody, for cytokine storm in patients suffering from a severe case of coronavirus infection. The drug targets the human granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), which is responsible for acute and chronic inflammation.
- Medicago developing drug candidates against COVID-19 after having produced Virus-Like Particles (VLP) of the coronavirus. Company entered into collaboration agreement with Laval University’s Infectious Disease Research Centre to develop antibodies against SARS-CoV-2
- Airway Therapeutics is exploring its novel human recombinant protein AT-100 (rhSP-D) for the treatment of coronavirus
- Tiziana Life Sciences is developing its monoclonal antibody TZLS-501 for the treatment of COVID-19.
- OyaGen developing OYA1, an antiviral drug for the treatment of COVID-19
- BeyondSpring developed BPI-002, a small molecule agent indicated for treating various infections including COVID-19. BPI-002 ability to activate CD4+ helper T cells and CD8+ cytotoxic T cells and generating an immune response in the body.
- Altimmune, US-based clinical-stage Biopharmaceutical Company completed the design and synthesis of single-dose intranasal Covid-19 vaccine for the treatment of Coronavirus disease.
- Inovio Pharmaceuticals collaborated with Beijing Advaccine Biotechnology Company to advance the development of the former’s vaccine, INO-4800, as a novel coronavirus vaccine. Company initiated the pre-clinical testing for clinical product manufacturing
- APEIRON Biologics and University of British Columbia developed APN01 for the treatment of COVID-19
- Takeda Pharmaceutical Company plans to develop a plasma-derived therapy against coronavirus.
- Peking University First Hospital sponsored the clinical trials for Favipiravir combined with Tocilizumab for the treatment of Coronavirus
- Eli Lilly and Company announced the first human trial of its potential Covid-19 drug which has been drawn from the blood sample of an early US Covid-19 patient who successfully recovered from deadly contagion.
- On 17th March, Pfizer Inc. and BioNTech SE entered into a collaboration agreement to develop mRNA-based coronavirus vaccine aimed at preventing COVID-19 infection.
- On 23rd March, China initiated Phase I clinical trial of a vaccine against Covid-19, the infection caused by the novel coronavirus
- In March 2020, Phase 1 clinical trials for the COVID-19 vaccine was initiated in USA.
- In April 2020, China has approved its third coronavirus vaccine, an inactivated vaccine for the second phase of clinical trials
- On April 7th, Indian Immunologicals partnered with Griffith University to develop COVID-19 vaccine
- In May 2020, The University of Oxford in the UK has reported positive findings of its Covid-19 vaccine candidate in a small preclinical study involving six monkeys.
- In May 2020, Pfizer launched a phase I/II clinical trial for a vaccine for COVID-19. The company collaborated with mmunotherapy company, BioNTech to test four different vaccines at once
- In May 2020, Novavax, an America-based vaccine development company begun the phase I/II trial of the company’s COVID-19 vaccine candidate NVX‑CoV2373 in Australia
- In May 2020, Serum Institute Of India started 3rd Phase clinical trials Of COVID-19 vaccine on patients at several hospitals in Pune, India
- In May 2020, Glenmark Pharmaceuticals Ltd started a new clinical trial in India to test a combination of two anti-viral drugs, favipiravir and umifenovir, as a potential Covid-19 treatment
- On 1st June 2020, Moderna started dosing the first participants in all age cohorts of the Phase II clinical trial of its Covid-19 vaccine candidate, mRNA-1273